The Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) plays a vital role in almost all development projects where people displaced due to the implementation of a project which is out to mitigate or compensate the losses. The Kano River Irrigation Project is one of the largest and most successful irrigation schemes in Nigeria. It is located in Bunkure, Kura and Garum Malam Local Government of Kano State with project office at Kura. Its source of water is the Tiga Dam, which provides a perfect setting for gravity irrigation. Its total irrigable area is 22,000 hectares (retrieved today on 13.10.2019 in trimming.org). There is a need to repair the irrigation system due to some major damages in the irrigation channel. The Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) is a Transforming Irrigation Management in Nigeria (TRIMING) Project under Federal Ministry of Water Resources sponsored by World Bank for the rehabilitation of the irrigation channel.
Due to huge fund required for this type of project, the Nigerian Government solicited for funds from The World Bank for the repairs of the irrigation channel. For The World Bank to approve the funds, there is need to carry out a resettlement action plan for the project affected persons. Sustainabiliti Limited, an environmental company in Nigeria was engaged to carry out the resettlement action plan through a competitive bidding process. Geospatial Research Limited was sub-contracted to delineate farm plots, household, economic tree crops using satellite imagery at a minimum scale 1: 5,000. Geospatial Research Limited is a registered company with the Corporate Affairs Commission (CAC) in Nigeria. We have five (5) years of experience in the field of geospatial business, land surveying and mapping with keen interest in precision farming. The terms of reference of the consultancy included among other tasks the mapping and delineation of over 22,000 hectares of land using a high-resolution satellite imagery and GPS technology. This was to be completed within three months.
In carrying out this project, composition of our team is critical for the success of the project. Basically, our team comprises of negotiators, surveyor, socio economic expert and language translator. The duty of the negotiators is to have a meeting with stakeholders, surveyor is to measure the size of the land and socio economic expert is to coordinate and analysis socio economic data and the translator is to translate from Hausa language to English language. Project methodology was developed with the contribution of all member which is based on the scope of work and individual role as defined.
Meeting with various stakeholders was conducted which involves farmers, Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, and Community Leaders. The consultation was done for smooth running of the operation. Majority of the stakeholders made available some important information that was useful for the success of the project. A total of 60 ad hoc staff was engaged and trained on the use of GPS and ODK data for this exercise. Each team comprises of two people; within the team, one of them map the parcel while the other person collects the socio economic data. Effort was made to engage the local people within the project area for the exercise.
Stakeholder consultation with farmers
The Kano River Irrigation Project (KRIP) is divided into east and west district with about forty nine (49) sectors namely Agalawa, Agolas, Azore, Bangaza, Barnawa, Bukure A, Bunkure B, Butalawa, Cirin, Dalili, Dambala, Dorawa, Gabas, Gafan, Gayere, Gori North, Gori South, Guriya, Gwamma, Kadawa, Karfi, Kode, Kosawa, Kore, Kuluma, Lauteye, Majobo, Makunturi, Makwaro, Maura, Pako, Raje, Rakauna, Ruga, Sabon Ruwa, Samawa, Shiye, Tsanbanki, Tsuani, Tugugu, Turba, Ungwar Rimi A, Ungwar Rimi B, Waire, Yadakwari, Yakasai, Yantomo, and Yuri. Each of the sectors comprises of blocks and within each blocks, we have farm plots.
Irrigation Channel in Kode Sector
For the detailed mapping of the farmland, differential and handheld GPS was used for farm delineation which was overlaid on satellite imagery for individual plot delineation and Open Data Kit (ODK) was used for capturing the socio economic data. During the period the project was carried out, it was only rice that was planted which made the work easier for us. Economic trees were also geotagged for evaluation purpose. The GPS coordinate of each farmland was plotted in ArcGIS environment and other non-spatial data was added for data analysis and presentation. A unique identification number was giving to each farmers for referencing purpose. For the first time in history, the farmers were able to know the size of their farmland which is very critical to farmers to have access to loan facilities. Compensation was computed on the basis on farm size and the economic tree for inconvenience allowances which was paid to the farmers before the main construction takes place. The weather was favorable throughout our stay in Kano for the project. Data are collected from the enumerator every day and data quality assurance carried out for possible error. The GPS coordinate were plotted to produce survey plan for each plot and farm size were computed accordingly.
Farmland Survey with Differential GPS
In carrying out this study, we faced several challenges, which includes farmers not on ground when the data capturing was going on, some female owners of farmland did not come out for the exercise because their religion beliefs does not allow stranger to see their face. Some farmers see us a tax collector from the government office which was a falsehood to discourage farmers from coming out for the exercise. Language barrier of the project team member and the locals which sometimes leads to conflicts. The project was completed after six months against the three months’ agreement which was as a result of the stated problem above. Over 23,000 farm land were delineated and socio economic data gathered.
Due to the distance of each sectors from each other where our team members worked and we had only one operational base which meant that staff had to travel down to the base in case of any challenges on the field because there was no telephone network to communicate. The road network was bad which make navigation uneasy. We don’t have an internet service to upload our data daily, we have to connect each device to the computer for data download. Language barrier between the locals and the project coordinator was an another challenge. The entire environment was relatively flat with few trees which makes navigation within the farmland easier and faster. There was no interference with the GPS signal because there was no telecom mast or powerline around. Also, we have no canopy disturbance to GPS signals.
In conclusion, carrying out a resettlement action plan that will cater for farmers in Kano Irrigation Scheme required a lot of effort in terms of project planning, resources and time to achieve a desired result, which involves stakeholder consultation, training of staff, data collection and data analysis and presentation.
https://www.triming.org/schemes/kano-river-irrigation-scheme-kris (retrieved today on 13.10.2019)